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Its advantage lies in the large volume of ocean transportation, the low cost of ocean transportation, and the wide access of shipping channels. However, its disadvantages include slow speed, high risk of navigation, and uncertain sailing date.



According to the mode of ship operation, international ocean shipping can be divided into liner shipping and charter shipping.

Liner shipping

A. features of liner transport :(l) liner transport has fixed shipping date, route, port of call and relatively fixed freight rate; (2) the liner's freight includes loading and unloading charges, so the liner's port loading and unloading should be undertaken by the ship; (3) the number of goods carried by liner is relatively flexible, and the shipper can book space as required, which is especially suitable for the transportation of general cargo and container goods.

B. liner freight.

Liner freight is stipulated in liner tariff, including basic freight and various surcharges. Basic freight is divided into two categories: one is the traditional freight of a piece of groceries; One category is container rates.

Groceries are also priced or shipped on a per-piece basis. For bulk and low-value goods, the freight rate may be negotiated by both parties.

There are various surcharges in liner freight, including; Extra length surcharge, extra weight surcharge, optional discharge surcharge, change of discharge surcharge, fuel surcharge, congestion surcharge, deviation surcharge, transhipment surcharge and direct route surcharge, etc.

In addition to the aforesaid sea freight, related service charges and equipment usage fees shall be included in the container transport expenses.

In addition, the liner company will charge freight if different commodities are mixed in the same package. If the gross weight and volume are not separately stated by the shipper in different packages, the freight shall be calculated and collected for the full bill of lading for the goods with higher charges. If the gross weight and volume are not separately stated by the shipper, the freight shall also be charged at a higher rate.

Charter transportation

Chartering means chartering a whole ship. Charter cost is lower than liner, and can choose direct route, so bulk goods generally use charter shipping transport. There are two main ways of chartering: voyage chartering and time chartering.

Voyage charter. Voyage charter is based on voyage charter, also known as voyage charter. The ship shall complete the cargo transport task according to the voyage stipulated in the charter party and shall be responsible for the operation and management of the ship and all expenses incurred during the voyage. Generally speaking, the freight for voyage charter is calculated according to the quantity of goods shipped, or the voyage charter amount. The rights and obligations of both parties shall be specified in the charter party: in the method of voyage charter, the contract shall specify whether the ship shall bear the costs of loading and unloading the goods at the port. If the ship does not bear the loading and unloading, the loading and unloading period or loading and unloading rate shall be stipulated in the contract, together with demurrage and dispatch money correspondingly. If the charterer fails to complete the loading and unloading work within the time limit. In order to compensate the ship for the loss caused by delayed sailing, the ship should pay a certain penalty, namely demurrage fee. If the charterer finishes the loading and unloading operation in advance, the ship shall pay a certain bonus to the charterer, which is called dispatch money. Usually dispatch money is half demurrage.

Time charter. Time charter refers to the mode of chartering a ship for a certain period of time for transportation. It is also called time charter. During this period, the charterer may dispatch and control the ship within the prescribed navigation area by himself, but he shall be responsible for various expenses in the operation process, such as fuel fee, port fee and handling fee.

China maritime industry editor

When China's maritime industry occupies a place in the world's maritime industry, its advantages and disadvantages are also exposed in the flood of global competition, which is the reality that China's port and shipping enterprises need to face up to and pay attention to when making strategic changes in their development mode. The advantage that our country shipping industry develops in world shipping

From the point of view of international trade

According to the international monetary fund forecast, in 2006 the international economic trend will still maintain the stable growth, the United States and the world will have the growth rate of 3.6% and 4.3% respectively, and China's GDP growth rate will also maintain above 8.5%.

A strong economy has boosted world trade. In 2003, the total value of international trade was 15.35 trillion us dollars. It reached $21.1462 trillion in 2005. In international trade, the "China factor" is the biggest bright spot. In 2004, China's import and export value, export value and import value were 1154.74 billion us dollars, 593.36 billion us dollars and 561.38 billion us dollars respectively, increasing by 35.7%, 35.4% and 36% respectively. The total value of import and export exceeded 1 trillion us dollars for the first time. In 2005, the volume of goods import and export reached us $1422.1 billion, ranking the third in both import and export value in the world. In addition, China's share of world trade has increased to 7.3% from 6.5% in 2004, an increase of 0.8 percentage points. The proportion of imports rose from 5.9 percent to 6.1 percent, an increase of 0.2 percentage points. China's import and export trade shows a good growth momentum and continues to play an important role in international trade.

Look from international shipping market

The BDI index for the international dry bulk market fell to 845 in October 2001, the lowest point of the year. The index rose slightly in 2002, but not much, ending the year at 1,731. In the second half of 2003, there was a big rise, which soared to 4470 points in October and closed at 4467 points at the end of the year. In 2004, it maintained a good growth momentum, reaching the highest point of 6101 and closing at 4438 at the end of the year. In March 2005, it was the highest point of the year at 4956 points and closed at 2321 points at the end of the year. Since 2002, the overall volume of dry bulk cargo has accelerated. Due to the great demand for bulk basic raw materials for the global economic development, the volume of iron ore, coal and other transport is growing rapidly, and China, as one of the fastest developing countries in the world economy, plays a very important role. In the past 10 years, the average annual growth rate of China's bulk dry bulk shipping volume was 17%, much higher than the international market level, and 70% increment of the world dry bulk shipping market came from China. In 2003, for example, China imported 148 million tons of iron ore, accounting for 28.5 percent of global seabornship. In 2004, the global seaborne volume of iron ore was 600 million tons, and China imported 208 million tons, accounting for 34.6%. In 2005, under the influence of state regulation and control, the growth rate decreased somewhat, but there was still a new demand of 60 million tons, and the annual import volume reached 248 million tons, with a growth rate of about 20%. It is expected that the international dry bulk shipping market, driven by China as a huge engine, will continue to grow in 2006, with an average annual growth rate of 6%.其优势在于海运运量大,海运成本低,运输渠道广。然而,它的缺点包括速度慢,航行风险高,航行日期不确定。









































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